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  《城市环境设计》
   2009年第04期

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非常校园
本刊
题目:非常校园
special campus
精评:用心去关爱每一个孩子


非常校园


1、 学习的起点--
日本的幼儿园设计


■ 没有视线阻隔和任何区别的空间

在这个幼儿园里,同事之间没有任何的差别。无论是好还是坏,建筑尽端的房间往往都不可避免的与其他房间分隔开来,但是在这个幼儿园建筑中,没有隐藏的空间。被指定为园长办公室的空间是在入口大厅一侧的一个角落。这不是真正的园长办公室,仅仅是一个园长的角落。园长也成为安全警卫。基本上,这所学校在过去几年发生的问题,包括欺凌弱小,是由一些隐蔽房间造成的。这些封闭空间发生的事情不为人知。孩子们没有避难的地方。处于封闭空间的老师和学生也都不知道相邻空间发生了什么。在这个幼儿园建筑中的空间完全能够相互看到。


■ 没有围墙的娱乐空间

这个幼儿园没有围墙。仅仅有几堆泡桐木块象征每个班级的区域。因为没有围墙,各种声音也在空间之间传播。声音不会被天花板上的吸音材料阻滞。房间仅仅被临时叠放起来家具加以分隔,这些家具如同建筑部件。如果你把这些家具码放在一起,相邻的教室就可以看到了。房间不可进入的问题不会在这里发生。如果问题发生在某个地方的教室,来自相邻房间的帮助将会很快到达。没有隐藏的房间,孩子们可以自主的接受社会认可的行为模式。去相邻教室呆上一会也没有问题。按照园长所言,充满噪音的空间对于提高孩子们聚精会神的能力是更有利的。如果你仔细想想,你会发现孩子们不在他们自己的房间学习。孩子们会在嘈杂的厨房里学习。初中生去图书馆学习,但是图书馆绝不是一个安静的空间。即使在涉谷(东京的一家酒店,译者注)这样嘈杂的环境中,人们也能辨认认出其他人的声音。一个平静、和谐的空间可能是一个异常的状况,而在社会中原本是不存在的。


■ 弹性划分房间的家具

最初划分建筑室内的方盒子是由“Jyo Gakkai”发明的,它是武藏工业大学的一个学生组织。三年前,经过仅仅三天三夜的时间,他们为校园艺术节制造出500个方盒子。因为没有钱,所以他们使用中密度纤维板(MDF)制造粗糙的结构,至今还散发着令人头痛的粘合剂的强烈气味。但是它取得了巨大的成功。尽管它们仅仅是一些方盒子,但是它们让无数的孩子们聚集到这里。孩子们喜欢这个没有任何要求的现实。即使我们提供帮助,这些到处乱跑的孩子们还是非常勤奋的堆积这些方盒子。景观没有任何要求,他们还是会想方设法进入狭窄的空间。如果你对他们发号施令,孩子们将停下来,但是事实上他们喜欢这样玩耍。幸运的是,这里大多数的杰出学生将有一天属于我们在大学的工作室。基于我们的想法通过发挥所产生的印象,我们决定与这些学生们开展比以前更多的合作。


■ 保育室中的水井

在保育室中,洗手间的形象是户外水井的形象。我们希望幼儿园的学生在这些水井周围随便聊天。尽管安装了所谓的墙壁洗手盆,但是这个幼儿园没有墙壁。此外,我们决定把人们聚集在一起欢呼和呐喊,这对于每个人都更有意思,而不是一个人面对着墙壁洗手。水龙头是一种成型软管。在水槽的内部和外部,你可以自由的向你的朋友求助。让人出乎意料的是,我们所担心的灾难,孩子们都明白。目前,它正在被愉快的利用,而没有任何麻烦。


■ 裸灯泡照明

照明是裸露的灯泡。虽然裸露的灯泡不能提供荧光灯的亮度,但她能教给孩子灯的制造方式。开灯用的绳挂在房间内。然而,即使有人被推到,也仅仅会碰到灯泡包围的灯绳。为了打开房间内所有的灯,去每一个空间拉灯绳是必要的。房间没有分区,自然也就没有放置交换机的墙,也就没有墙壁分隔照明区域。孩子们聚集在开灯的地方,创造出一个现场空间。每个灯的开关包括了调节灯光的功能。虽然目的是延长每一盏灯的寿命,但是另一个目的是灯泡熄灭的时候允许孩子们直接观察灯丝。从富士幼儿园毕业的孩子们将知道灯为什么发光。他们也将知道灯和开关之间的关系。



■ 檐口

屋顶住宅没有栏杆。幼儿园园长说,如果这个幼儿园建筑也没有栏杆,那将是一件好事。当我们建造屋顶住宅的时候,那位丈夫去除了栏杆。他只说,“我们以前房子的屋顶平台没有栏杆,环视周围其他的房子的屋顶也没有栏杆。”然而,一所幼儿园没有栏杆是不可能的。运作幼儿园的已婚夫妇提出了一项建议,就是在檐口外侧挂一张网,它能接住跌落下去的孩子,但是这并不太好。对用这种方式接住的孩子,在下一步做什么的问题我们没有任何答案。没有栏杆的诱惑就放在了檐口上。檐口也不仅仅是一个外观的问题。坐在檐口上是舒服的。最后,经过一段时间的试验和犯错之后,我们能够保留檐口位置的座位,但是需要在檐口四周设置一圈最大间隔11厘米的栏杆,这个间隔能够有效防止孩子的头钻入空隙。脚可以伸入这个11厘米的间隙,除非是特别得大,而且大多数成年人也可以把腿搭在檐口上。在建筑移交给业主的那一天, 四百五十个幼儿园的学生坐在了檐口上。一千只袜子在檐口上摆动,所有在场的人都禁不住流出了感激的泪水。

檐口已降至法律允许的上限。面对庭院的天花板高度只有2.1米。正常高度的人可以很容易用手摸到檐口。2.1米对孩子足够了。矮屋顶意味着屋顶上沿与屋顶下沿的距离很近。在观望庭院另一侧的屋顶的同时,屋顶上发生的事也可以看到。屋顶平台坡向庭院,所以即使屋顶上的人再怎么后退,他们的整个身体也是可见的,包括他们的脚。如果你在花园中跳起一点,你就能摸到孩子们悬在空中的脚。

为了解决落下的枯叶,一个水平向大开口的排水槽设置于檐口位置。收集起来的雨水从雨水槽落下,然后排入庭院中四个不同位置的四个大雨水漏中。当下雨的时候,孩子们聚集在雨水槽处,观看瀑布般的排水。孩子们喜爱着落水的情景。


■ 环绕树木的网

树木四周,我们利用了运作幼儿园的已婚夫妇的想法。那就是为了项目的实施,树木插入屋顶的空洞中。我们最初试图在树木周围用1.1米高的扶手,但是孩子们能自由进出,没有任何麻烦,因此最后的结果是用一张专门设计的网,把树围了起来。虽然从地面爬上榉树是很困难的,但是从屋顶高度爬就很容易了。甚至在今天,榉树的周围也是挤满了爬树的孩子。


■ 屋顶的方向性

屋顶平台大致朝一个方向对齐。用椭圆形的结构线可能对弧形的构图比较适用,但是这个建筑的形状不是椭圆形。对于它的转变,既没有视觉中心,也没有参考指标。尽量让弧线板去适应形体,真的是很不舒服。建设最初确定的扭曲的形式,导致了一个精确的甲板必须进行弯曲控制的状况。虽然建筑看上去有一个中心,但它却是一个没有中心的空间。在这个幼儿园中,既没有成排的课桌,也没有排列的家具。不适于成排摆放的家具被选用,而没有选择成排的组合家具。幼儿园的学生随便的坐在分散的地方,当必要的时候他们只需要把头转向老师。屋顶之下的空间是完全平等的,包括幼儿园园长的空间。


■ 扭曲的椭圆形

这个椭圆形是扭曲的。这是手绘草图扫描的结果,然后再把它们用曲线板连接。它确实给现场工作人员带来了麻烦。曲线的变化毫无规律,并且有一部分和直线非常接近。当你站在场地上的时候,不精确施工造成的檐口倾斜是不负责任的。虽然屋顶是按照排水坡度倾斜,但是在外围和内部的每一个檐口都是固定的。另一方面,建筑的宽度是按照绘制的线扩展和收缩。结果,看上去平滑的屋顶,实际上是一个微小变化的双曲面壳体的三维曲面。手可以立即给予在计算机上不可能实现的答复。当处理小地方的关系时,例如防止树木突出,鼠标仅仅是一个干扰。


■ 完全开放的幼儿园建筑

这个幼儿园建筑在全年三分之二的时间里都在完全开放的状态下被利用。这已经被检验过了,因为建筑分为两期建造,而建筑的一半从夏天就已经投入使用。因此,该建筑的基本状态是窗户打开。滑动门与扭曲的椭圆形完全一致。地面与房间内部几乎处于相同的水平高度,因为必须脱鞋是没有任何意义的,而且对室外的终止和室内的开始加以区分也是不适用的。这个幼儿园有一个外部走廊。去每一个空间就像脱鞋串门。而这里没有拖鞋。仔细想想,你会发现进门穿拖鞋,只是存在于日本教育环境下的奇怪习惯。在这里,一般的公共场所没有拖鞋,甚至居住或者工作空间中也没有。如果整个建筑被装上韩国加热型空调,哪怕就是在冬季最寒冷的时候,你即使光着脚也不会冷。这里没有采用通过非天然的电力或热水加热地板,进行供暖。这里形成了微气候,笼罩着整座建筑。


■ 阶梯下的山

为了到达滑梯,你得爬阶梯,登上那个一米高的土山。因为阶梯很矮,所以我们认为即使有人跌落下去也不会受伤。还有我们注意到,孩子们非常喜欢土堆。我们的大学生提供了山的形状。如果我们使用动力铲车,它将不可避免的变成一个令人反感的齐整形状。堆一座山是很难的,但正如我们所料,孩子们非常喜爱它。还没有一个孩子从阶梯上摔下来或者受伤。然而,也存在一个问题:孩子们发现,小山的土比地面更软,因此他们每天都刮下来一些,做成泥饼。如今,它已成为一个非常陡的斜坡。我们必须和我们的学生再去堆积那个土山。


■ 没有要求的娱乐设施

我们在这里制造的娱乐设施只有一个滑梯。屋顶上没有一件娱乐设施。事实上是我们放弃了,因为没有钱,但是我们认为没有娱乐设施的结果真的很好。屋顶本身就成为娱乐设施。这里所需要的是一个屋顶。施工期间,我们去参观了高迪的米拉公寓。我们的目的是去看看屋顶,那里是完全陌生的,有很多不规则的烟囱和窗户。事实上,我们在十七年前就参观过它。米拉公寓没有娱乐设施。很明显,因为它不是幼儿园,但是,无论是四岁的孩子还是一岁的孩子,我们都不能阻止乱跑和呼喊。无论他们有多少次摔倒、擦伤甚至哭泣,他们还是继续四处乱跑。这个过程不是只有孩子享受其中。成人也会兴高采烈。顺便说一句,没有一个娱乐项目出现在宫崎骏的电影中,但是却被孩子们如此喜爱。成人和孩子都喜欢宫崎骏的电影。出现在《龙猫》中的“梽月和小米住宅”是设计师对日本和西方住宅形式演变的胡乱结合。在这个场景中,他们找到了一个通向二楼的隐蔽楼梯。从圆形障子(shoji screen,日本房屋用的纸糊木框,译者注)伸出的头警告了他们。但是,我们都喜欢的是,它竟然就是非常普通的建筑元素。它不是一项发明装置。重要的是,它不是“给予”,而是“发现”。 如果它被做的适合儿童,成人就不能喜欢。毕竟,成年人和儿童有不同的视角。同时,儿童的视角与每个成人也不一样。在身体力量方面,他们的后背是不同的。所以他们的爱好也不同。如果每件东西都被给予,我们不能从自身选择视线。娱乐设施包含成人给儿童玩耍的各种工具。有了操场,玩的方式受到了限制。儿童在寻找自身位置方面是专家。在富士幼儿园的屋顶上,孩子们依靠天光能够找到位置。在屋顶连接成环形的第一天,老师带领每一个班级在屋顶上转圈,但是孩子们绝不会和老师们呆在一起。他们聚集在天光周围,不肯离开。在绕了一整圈之后,只剩下很少的几个人跟在老师身后。保育室就在下面,伙伴们的头从上向下偷看是很有意思的。屋顶是倾斜的。正因为倾斜,跑动才变得有趣。即使那些不经常跑动的孩子也将绕着屋顶比赛。据说,孩子们在早晨要跑三十圈,而三十圈就是5500米,在东京就没有任何地方,幼儿园的学生在没有强制的情况下跑这么远的距离。


■ 树根和地基

为了保护树木就必须保护它的根。对于榉树,树根的分布就是树枝的跨度。因此,树根周围没有地基。树根从庭院开始伸展,跨过整个建筑的宽度,一直到达椭圆形的外部。至少建筑下面的部分不会引起重量的增加,因此平面板能够跨于两个地基之上。为了防止树根吸入混凝土中的碱化合物,一片垫层铺设于混凝土之上。挖土与夯实土壤都会阻碍树根的生长,所以这里更像是一个发掘现场,而不是施工现场。


■ 户外水龙头

对于幼儿园的花园,户外水龙头的使用是不可缺少的。在我们建造户外使用的水池之前,我们的学生调查了各种各样的幼儿园,包括他们自己的孩子所在的托儿所,发现它们的水池没有一个是不堵的。当然,这在有声望的学校可能没有问题,在那里他们安排专人经常清扫,除此之外还会挑选品学兼优的学生,但是这些通常是不可能的。在富士幼儿园,我们观察它们为什么总是堵,后来看到孩子们聚集到一起,用土铲铲着泥团塞入方形的铁篦子中。这就是水池堵塞的原因。对于目前的幼儿园,仅仅是把水龙头设置的比较高,这样就看不到地漏除非他们被挖出来。这个幼儿园里的普通水泥排水槽看上去可能是不雅观的。水龙头的外表就像是地上长出的草。这些随意弯曲的水龙头从地面“生长”出来,水就流到地面上。圆形的树干切片被排列在地面上。水通过它们之间的缝隙进入地下。大的排水槽已经安装在地面以下。


・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・


■ 结论

我们的设计意味着“一个时代的结束”。这个时代的结束是一个宝库,它容纳了现代人已经丢弃的“欢乐”。现代的便利剥夺了儿童的许多意识。他们不知道下雨的时候,土地会变湿。他们不知道一个人一旦发生碰撞,就可能受伤。他们不知道电灯泡发光的原因。通过这个建筑,我们希望他们获得“常识”。常识包括那些永恒不变的人类社会的价值观,甚至还有一些是跨时代的。昨天,我们用一整天的时间参观了屋顶住宅一家。当我们第一次见到他们的时候,两姐妹一个读小学的二年级,一个读四年级,而现在她们分别是高中一年级和三年级的学生。尽管如此,这个家庭的氛围在这么长的岁月中没有发生变化。我们认为,当这对已婚夫妇走到生命尽头之时,屋顶住宅可能仍然不会发生变化。我们还认为,即使五十年过后,富士幼儿园也将与此一样。



■spaces with unobstructed views and no distinctions

In this kindergarten, there are no distinctions between the colleagues. For better or worse, rooms at the ends of a building unavoidably tend to be segregated from the others, but in this kindergarten building there are no hidden places. The place designated as the directors’ office is a corner at one side of the entry hall. Rather than a directors’ office, it is merely a directors’ corner. The directors are also the security guards. Basically, the problems that have been occurring in schools over recent years, including bullying, are created by the presence of hidden rooms. What occurs in closed spaces is unknown. The children have no refuge. Teachers and pupils in closed spaces don’t know what is occurring in the adjacent spaces. The spaces in this kindergarten building are in full view of each other.


■ Playrooms without walls

There are no walls in this kindergarten. There are just piles of paulownia wood blocks to indicate the area of each class. Because there are no walls, sounds are also transmitted between spaces. The sounds are not blocked by the acoustic absorption material on the ceiling. The rooms are only divided by casually stacked-up furniture, like building blocks. If you scramble up onto this furniture, the neighboring classes can be seen. The problem of inaccessible rooms does not arise here. If a problem occurs in a classroom somewhere, help will soon come from a nearby room. With no hidden rooms, children will automatically adopt socially acceptable behavior patterns. It’s also no problem to go to an adjacent classroom for a moment. According to the directors, spaces with a lot of noise are better for raising children who have the ability to concentrate. If you think about it, children don't study in their rooms. Children study in noisy kitchens. Junior high school students go to the library to study, but the library is by no means a tranquil space. People can recognize the voices of others even in the bustle of Shibuya. A peaceful, sympathetic space is perhaps an abnormal condition that doesn’t originally exist in society.


■ Furniture that softly partitions rooms

The original boxes that partition the interior of the building were invented by "Jyo Gakkai," a student organization at the Musashi Institute of Technology. Three years ago, over a period of only three days and nights, they produced five hundred boxes for a campus festival. There was no money, so they made really crude constructions using MDF that still had a strong smell of headache-inducing adhesive, but it was a great success. Although these are merely boxes, they allow innumerable children to gather. The children like the fact that there are no requirements. Even if we offer to help, these children running about will very diligently pile up the boxes. Even with no requirements, they will try to get into the narrow spaces. If you give orders, children won’t work, but in reality they like to work. With luck, most of the standout pupils here will one day belong to our studio at the university. Based on our impressions of the effectiveness of this idea, we decided to collaborate with the students even more than before.




■ Water wells in the nursery rooms

The image of the washroom in a nursery room is that of an outdoor well. We want the kindergarten pupils to casually chat around these wells. Even having installed so-called walled washbasins, there are no walls in this kindergarten. Besides, rather than washing one's hands while facing a wall, we decided it was more fun for everyone to gather together, cheering and shouting. The waterspout faucet is a molded flexible tube. Inside as well as outside the sink, you can freely turn to your friends, and we were worried about disasters, but unexpectedly the children understand. At present, it is being happily used without any trouble.


■ Naked bulb lighting

The lighting is naked light bulbs. Although naked light bulbs do not provide the brightness of fluorescent lamps, this teaches children the way light is made. Strings for turning on the lights hang inside the rooms. However, even if one is pulled, it is only attached to the few lights surrounding the string. To turn on all the lights in a room, it is necessary to go to each place and pull the strings. There are no partitions in the rooms, so naturally there are no walls in which to place the switches, and no walls to divide the lighting areas. Children gather in the places where the lights are turned on, creating a local place. A light dimmer function is included in the switch for each light. Although the purpose is to extend the longevity of each lamp, another purpose is to allow the children to visually check the filaments of the light bulbs that have become extinguished. Children who graduate from Fuji Kindergarten will know why lamps shine. They will also know the relationship between a lamp and a switch.


・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・


■ Eaves

There are no balustrades in the Roof House. The kindergarten directors said that it would be good if this kindergarten building also had no balustrades. When we made the Roof House, the husband eliminated the balustrades by merely saying, "there were no balustrades on the roof deck of our previous house, and looking around the neighborhood there are no other houses with balustrades on the roof." Yet a kindergarten without a balustrade is impossible. The married couple that run the kindergarten made a proposal for a device in which children who fall could be caught by a net projecting out from the eaves, but this was no good. We had no answer to the question of what the children who were so caught would then do. The allure of having no balustrades lay in the eaves. The eaves are not just a problem of appearance. Sitting on the eaves is comfortable. Finally, after a period of trial and error, we were able to keep the eaves seating by encircling the roof with slender balusters at a maximum spacing of 11cm, too small for a child’s head to enter. Feet can pass through an 11cm gap, unless they are especially big ones, and most adults can also hang their legs over the eaves. On the day the building was handed over, four hundred and fifty kindergarten pupils sat on the eaves. A thousand pairs of socks danced on the eaves. All the people involved couldn’t stop their tears of gratitude.


The eaves have been lowered to the legally permitted limit. The height of the ceiling facing the courtyard is only 2.1m. A man of normal height can easily reach the eaves with his hand. 2.1m is sufficient for a child. The lowness of the roof means that the top of the roof is near to the underside of the roof. Looking at the roof on the other side of the courtyard, events on the roof can simultaneously be seen. The roof deck slopes toward the courtyard, so even if a person goes further back on the roof, their whole body is visible, right down to their feet. If you jump a little from the garden, you can touch the hanging feet of the children.

To cope with falling dead leaves, a wide-open horizontal gutter was specified at the eaves. The collected rainwater falls from gargoyles in four places into four large rain drain pans in the courtyard. When it rains, the children gather around the waterfalls from these gargoyles. The children love this flowing water.


■ Nets around the trees

Around the trees, we made use of the ideas of the married couple that run the kindergarten. Holes have been inserted in the roof for trees to project through. We initially tried surrounding them with a 1.1m-high handrail, but the children could pass through it without any trouble, so the final result was a net specifically designed to surround the trees. Although it is difficult to climb a zelkova tree from ground level, it is easy to do so from roof height. Even today, the surroundings of the zelkova trees swarm with children.


■ Directionality of the roof

The roof deck is roughly aligned in a single direction. With an oval, the structural lines would probably be applied radially, but the shape of this building is not an oval. There is also no center to be aimed at, nor an index for its transformation. Trying to apply radial boards to the model was really uncomfortable. The building was originally defined with distortions, leading to a condition in which an accurate deck would have to bend the rules. While the building seems to have a center, it is a space without a center. In this kindergarten, neither the desks nor the furniture are aligned in rows. Rather than altering it, furniture that does not lend itself to alignment in rows was chosen. The kindergarten pupils sit in randomly dispersed directions, only turning their heads toward the teachers when necessary. The places under the roof are entirely equal, including those of the kindergarten directors.


■ Distorted oval

The oval has been distorted. This is the result of scanning in a hand-drawn sketch, and linking it with spline curves. It indeed caused trouble for our staff and on site. There is no regularity to the variations in the curve, and there are also parts that are close to being straight lines. Inaccurate construction is not responsible for the swaying of the eaves when you stand on them on site. Although the roof is sloped to follow the water drainage slope, the eaves on the outer perimeter and inner perimeter are each fixed. On the other hand, the width of the building expands and shrinks in accordance with the sketched lines. As a result, the roof appears smooth but is actually the three-dimensional curved surface of a delicately changing hyperbolic shell. A hand can instantaneously give answers that cannot be achieved on a computer. When solving delicate site relationships, such as preventing the trees from protruding, a mouse is only a hindrance.


■ Entirely openable kindergarten building

This kindergarten building is used entirely open for two thirds of the seasons throughout the year. This has already been tested, because the building was built in two phases and so half of it has been in use since summer. Therefore, the basic state of this building is with the windows open. The sliding doors directly follow the distorted oval shape. With the ground surface and room interiors at almost the same level, there is no sense of having to take off your shoes, and the distinction between where outside stops and where inside starts doesn’t apply. This kindergarten is an outdoor corridor. Going to each place is like taking off your shoes to visit a house. There are no slippers. Thinking about it, putting on slippers when indoors is a strange custom that only exists in the Japanese educational environment. Even in a residence or a workplace, there are no slippers for the general public. Put strongly, even in the cold of midwinter, your bare feet won’t be cold if Korean stove-type air-conditioning has been installed throughout the building. Nor does it have the unnatural heat of floor heating that uses electricity or warm water. It is a microclimate that envelops the entire building.


■ Mountain under the stairs

To reach the slide, you ascend a stair to ascend a mountain of soil about one meter in height. Because the stairs are low, we considered that there would be no injuries even if someone fell, but to be honest, it was also because we were aware that children would enjoy the heap of earth. The shape of the mountain was prepared by our students from the university. If we used a power shovel, it would unavoidably become an unpleasant crew-cut shape. The mountain was difficult to make, but as we expected, the children love it. No children fall from the stairs and get injured, either. There is a problem, however. The children noticed that the soil of the mountain is softer than the ground surface, and so every day they scrape some off to make mud pies. It has now become a very steep slope. We must again go and pile it up with our students.


■ Play equipment without requirements

The play equipment that we made here comprises just one slide. There is not a single piece of play equipment on the roof. The truth is, we gave it up because there was no money, but we think the result of having no play equipment is really good. The rooftop itself becomes the play equipment. What was needed here was a roof. During construction, we went to see Gaudi's Casa Mila. Our purpose was to go to see the roof, which is full of strange, irregular chimneys and windows. Actually, we had visited it seventeen years previously. There is no play equipment at Casa Mila. That’s obvious, because it’s not a kindergarten, but neither our four-year-old child nor our one-year-old child could stop running around and shouting. No matter how many times they fell down and grazed themselves and started crying, they were soon running around again. It is not only the children that were enjoying it. The adults were also cheerful. Incidentally, not a single item of play equipment appears in the movies of Hayao Miyazaki, which are so beloved by children. Adults as well as children enjoy Hayao Miyazaki's movies. "The house of Satsuki and Mei" that appears in My Neighbor Totoro is a designer's muddled combination of Japanese and Western-style house extensions. In one scene, they search for a concealed stair to the second floor. They are alarmed by a head that projects from a round shoji screen. However, what we both enjoyed was that it was a very ordinary architectural element. It wasn’t an invented device. What is important is that it is not “given,” but “found.” If it is made to fit a child, an adult can’t enjoy it. After all, adults and children have different sightlines. At the same time, a child's sightline is not the same for each person. Their backs also differ in physical strength. Their preferences are also different. If everything is given, we can’t choose sightlines for ourselves. Play equipment comprises tools devised by adults to give children ways of playing. Playgrounds are given, and ways of playing are restricted. Children are experts at finding locations by themselves. Children can find locations on the rooftop of the Fuji Kindergarten by relying on the skylights. On the first day the roof was joined in a loop, the teachers guided each class around the rooftop, but the children never stayed with their teachers. They gathered around the skylights and didn’t move. While making a full revolution, only a few people remained behind the teachers. From the nursery rooms below, the heads of friends peeping from above seem interesting. The roof is sloping. Just because of this slope, running becomes fun. Even the children who usually don’t run will race around this roof. There are said to be children who do thirty laps in the mornings, but thirty laps is 5500 meters, and there is nowhere in Tokyo where kindergarten pupils would run this distance without compulsion.


■ Tree roots and foundations

To preserve a tree is to preserve its roots. With regard to zelkova trees, the spread of the roots is only the span of the branches. Therefore, there are no foundations around the tree roots. The roots extend from the courtyard across the width of the building to the exterior face of the oval. At least the parts under the building do not cause an increase in weight, so flat slabs can span from foundation to foundation. To prevent the areas around the roots being infiltrated by the alkali compounds in concrete, a sheet underlay was installed prior to the leveling concrete. The digging and soil stabilization proceeded while avoiding the roots, and it was more like an excavation site than a construction site.


■ Outdoor faucets

Faucets for outdoor use are indispensable for the garden of a kindergarten. Before we made basins for outdoor use, our students investigated various kindergartens, including the nursery schools our own children attend, and discovered not a single one of their basins was unblocked. Of course, there are probably no problems at prestigious schools, where they have people who clean very often as well as a selection of well-behaved children, but this is usually impossible. At Fuji Kindergarten, we observed why they become blocked, and saw that the children get together and use shovels to jam mud pies into the squares of the grille. That’s why they get blocked. Depending on the kindergarten, only the faucets stand high, and the drain holes do not appear unless they are excavated. For ordinary concrete drain pans to be visible in this kindergarten would be unsightly. The image of the exterior faucets is like grass growing up from the ground. The freely curved faucets grow from the ground, and pour water onto the ground. Round slices of tree trunks are arranged on the ground, and water enters their crevices from below ground. Large water drain pans have been installed underneath.


・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・


■ In conclusion

Our scheme is the "end of an era." The end of an era is a treasure house of "joys" that have now been abandoned. Modern conveniences have deprived children of sensation. They don’t know that when it rains, the soil gets wet. They don’t know that if a person is hit, they get injured. They don't know the reason why a light bulb glows. What we want to teach through this building is "common sense.” Common sense comprises those values of human society that are unchanging, even across eras. Yesterday, we spent the whole day visiting the family of the Roof House. When we first met them, the sisters were in the second grade and fourth grade of elementary school, and they are now in the first grade and third grade of high school. Still, the atmosphere flows unchanged from those days. We think the Roof House will probably still be unchanged when this married couple reaches the end of their lives. And we think that the Fuji Kindergarten will be the same even after fifty years have passed.

















2、 寓教于乐--
乌干达的艾滋病孤儿学校




作品基本信息:
项目名称:Kutamb艾滋病孤儿学校
设计单位:马修•米勒
设计类别:学校设计
建设地点:乌干达Kutamb
场地面积:1232m2
建筑面积:277 m2
完成时间:2005



此项工程最初是由艾米丽•皮罗顿发起的。艾米丽是H工程设计的创始人,同时在乌干达西南部的Kutamba艾滋病孤儿学校做义务教员。

这个学校正准备乔迁,新大楼由建筑师马修•米勒设计,名为人道主义建筑大楼。

在那里教学时,使艾米丽目睹了老师们对新大楼的关注度出乎寻常的高,他们兴奋于其对教学质量所带来的一系列影响。正是这一点让艾米丽立志与学校并肩合作,为新校址贡献上自己的一分力量。当艾米丽给孩子们上数学课时,她突发奇想,设计一套数学教具的想法在她的脑子里应运而生。她发现了孩子们学习数学有一定的难度,认为这正是一个绝佳的契机来帮助他们。

尽管其它课程也是应该予以重视的,不过艾米丽认为数学由于其普遍性和量化的特质,是学好其它一切的起点。掌握了这样一门世界通用的学科也能帮助我们最终在其它地区实践贯彻我们的构想。(春季,全美已经规划了四项建筑工程)。工程是由海林•德•葛伊拓展的,他以实习生的身份为H工程效力。还有就是丹•格罗斯曼,他是主设计设,在纽约分部与其它设计师通力合作。

在研究过程中,我们萌发出很多想法,但最后我们决定创造一个户外学习环境,同学校教育一样,对孩子同样是大有裨益的。我们想打造这样一个地方----孩子们在那里具备充分的合作精神,积极主动,富有创造性。而最重要的是,能够充分享受到其中的乐趣。

我的理解就是,一个适宜学习的氛围并不仅仅是一个孩子们可以学习的地方而已,它更是一个可以启发知识和学习的环境。这样说准确吗?怎样才能行得通呢?

我浏览了网站,发现为设计了一些游戏,比如“给我配对”、“数学音乐椅”、“哪个丢了?”和“环游世界”等等。环境的本身能对游戏有什么贡献呢?脱离了一定的环境氛围,这些游戏还能进行吗?

是的,答案是肯定的。环境的基本属性;汽车轮胎制成的4*4的格子半埋在地下,有多种不同的诠释方式。我们已经营造了这样的环境,适应于不同的游戏,激发出多种学习活动。一个可行的办法就是用粉笔在车胎上标上数字,这些数字是游戏的一部分,比如说可能代表着一个数学公式的答案。可以擦掉或是根据孩子们的水平来调整难度。游戏的第一局会出现一些基本的数学概念,比如计算,几何或是逻辑,都可以同时出现。

然而,擦掉数字,添上一些绳子,瞬间就可以把一个操场变成一个大型的空木背板,再加上些凳子就能充当议会的“席位”了,同时也可以是一个露天的大教室。再者,车胎也可以成为孩子们在课间休息时的玩物。就是这样一些简单的调整和改变,就会发生功能的质变。这也正是此项工程的目的所在。

另外一大好处就是在游戏中可以激发起师生的创造性思维。我们的乌干达之行让我们亲眼目睹了这样的一幕----当老师正告诉我们什么样的游戏们是孩子们最喜欢的,孩子们突然提议说玩“大投球”。这是一种将球投入车胎的洞中的游戏。

第一个这样的学习环境是由Kutamba艾滋病学校建立的,为什么这个学校首创这种教学模式呢?设计上或是学校的理念上什么独到之处以吸引您来到此地呢?

这所学校就是艾米丽首次将数学工具和H设计工程融为一炉的试验田。我们已经与这所学校建立了联系,方便我们能够发掘一些能够对学校操场进行改进的契机。Kutamba的老师们都格外的乐于助人,对这个计划也非常的热情高涨。没有他们的帮助和付出,我们是不可能组织好操场工程项目的。他们的努力付出同时也保证和提升了操场的教学价值。毫无疑问,孩子们在操场上会玩起他们最爱的游戏,当然在教学活动中,老师们也需要给孩子们必要的指导和启发。







This project was first initiated by Emily Pilloton, founder of Project H Design, while volunteering as an instructor at the Kutamba Aids Orphan School in South West Uganda.

The school was in the process of being relocated to a new building courtesy of Architect Matthew Miller and Architecture for Humanity.

While there, Emily saw that the teachers were very involved with the new building and they were excited about the effect the new building would have on the quality of education. It was at this point that she became interested in possibly collaborating with the school and contributing to the new location. The idea to design a math teaching aid came about while Emily was teaching math classes to the students. She saw how the students struggled with math and felt that there was a huge design opportunity to help.

Although other subjects needed attention as well, she felt math would be a great jumping off point due to it's universal and quantitative properties. Using a universal subject would also allow us to eventually implement the idea in other locations as well. (4 new construction are already planned to appear in the US this spring). The project was developed by Heleen de Goey, working for Project H as an intern and Dan Grossman as the Lead Designer in collaboration with other designers from the New York chapter.

Through our research we came up with many concepts which addressed our needs, but in the end we decided creating an outdoor learning environment would be most beneficial to the children's education as well as the school. We wanted to make a place where children could cooperate, be active, be creative and most importantly have fun.


It is my understanding that the Learning Landscape is not so much a place where children can study, but rather an environment from which they can learn, is this accurate? How does it work?

I have read the website and know that the landscape is designed for games such as “Match Me,” “Math Musical Chairs,” “Which One Is Missing?,” and “Around The World.” how does the landscape facilitate these games, could the games be played without the landscape?


Yes, that is correct. The basic nature of the landscape; a grid of four by four made out of car tires buried half way into the ground, allows it to be interpreted in many different ways. We have created a space which can be adapted to facilitate different games and learning activities. A way to adapt the landscape is to write numbers on the car tires using chalk, these numbers are a part of the games and for example represent the answer to a math equation, they can be erased and adjusted to an appropriate level for the students. The first round of games provide basic math concepts like calculations, geometry and logic at the same time.

However, by erasing the numbers and adding ropes, you can turn the playground into a giant peg board, also adding benches makes it a good place for assembly and debates as well as an outdoor classroom. Lastly the car tires can just be a place where the children can relax and play during recess. By simple adjustments or additions a new function can be created, that was the goal of this project.

Another advantages of the basic nature is that it also provokes creativity among the students and teachers to come up with their own games to play on the playground. We saw this during our visit to Uganda when the teachers were telling us about games which would work really well on the playground and the children came up with the idea to play 'Tunnel ball,' a game where they have to throw balls through the loops of the car tires.


The first Learning Landscape was built at the Kutamba AIDS Orphans School, why was this school selected for the first Learning Landscape, is there anything special about the design or mission of the school that drew you to the site?


This school was the place where Emily initiated the plan to create a math tool with Project H Design. We already had a connection to this school which made it easier for us to investigate the opportunities we had to develop with the playground. The teachers of Kutamba were incredibly helpful and enthusiastic about the plan. Without their help and commitment it would have been impossible for us to organize the construction of the playground. Their commitment is also crucial to ensure the educational value of the playground. I have no doubt that the children will play their own games on the playground, but the teachers are needed to instruct the children during the educational activities.



3、绿色、安全的校园--
南坝小学规划设计方案
概括:为了在灾区的孩子们
基本信息
项目名称:四川省平武县南坝中心小学规划设计方案
设计单位:美国罗得岛设计学院工作组
设计类别:校园设计
建设地点:
场地面积:
建筑面积:
委托单位:中国扶贫基金会灾后重建办公室
设计时间:2009.2



概括:为了在灾区的孩子们

在汶川地震中,人们记住了一个女老师的背影:她趴在瓦砾堆里,已死去多时,头朝着门的方向,守护着5个幼小的生命。这一幕就发生在四川省平武县南坝中心小学,那次巨大的灾难给经历过人都带来了深重的痛苦,为孩子们提供一个能让心灵得到平静的校园,对建筑从业者来说是不小的挑战,但又是义不容辞的责任。
南坝小学规划设计方案
四川省平武县南坝中心小学,是一所农村寄宿制小学。5.12汶川大地震发生后,学校校舍严重受损,房屋大面积倒塌,其余建筑成为危房不能使用,经济损失巨大,多名师生伤亡。
中国扶贫基金会灾后重建办公室计划为南坝小学重建校园。在为南坝小学设计安全、实用、美观的新校园的同时,为了尽量节省成本,把更多的资金投入到校园建设和配套设施方面,充分引入志愿资源,为南坝小学提供无偿的规划设计方案。

安全性
教室是学生们的避风港和家;我们提供住宅式的教室,让孩子们有在家的感觉,并且接近地面,会更有安全感。
传统和历史
土壤是农民的灵魂,他们热爱这片土地;当更多的乡村变得城市化,丢失泥土就像丢失了灵魂;我们设计了很多不同尺度的花园,它们是传统生活空间的灵魂。
绿色建筑
本地材料、自然通风(每间房间都有高窗和低窗相对而设,空气自然流通)、自然采光、悬挑屋檐自然遮阳、热能墙(冬暖夏凉)、园林绿化防止雨水冲流。
现代风格还是传统风格
我们尊重传统,设计是传统和现代的结合,是有长远发展意义的。
更经济
建筑方式和材料都是利用地方的资源。
省时
所有建筑都是统一结构单元的复制
与整体城市规划协调一致
我们的总体布局基于被政府认可的重庆大学规划学院制定的整体城市规划
协作
我们尊重政府的观点和本地建筑师的意见,希望在获得大家认可的前提下继续改进,为南坝建造最合适的学校。

设计团队:美国罗得岛设计学院工作组Peter Tagiuri + Yong Huang + RISD (Rhode Island School of Design)
团队成员:
Peter TAGIURI彼得·塔居里
Yong HUANG黄勇
Gabriel FELD加布利尔·菲尔德
Erik NELSON埃里克·尼尔森
Matt ELSON
Courtney HAVILAND
Yancey MODESTO
Andrew SIMES
Walter ZESK


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